What are the Medication for Myocardial Infarction?
The main idea in Treating Acute Myocardial Infarcts is to limit the damage that happens to your heart and to minimize complications that might crop up. The Whole Management of Myocardial Infarction is given below
The treatment has to address the clot that caused the Myocardial Infarct in the first place and it has to restore the balance between the myocardial oxygen supply and demand.
There are some treatment aspects that are common to all of the types of acute coronary syndromes.
There are some really important differences in the approach to patients who present with a STEMI or an ST-elevation myocardial infarct compared to unstable angina and n STEMI non-st elevation myocardial infarct.
Unstable angina and NME’s they’re usually treated in the same way whereas STEMI ZAR treated a little bit differently because they’re more serious.
So what happens
Any patient who comes to a hospital with a suspected heart attack would have suspected Myocardial Infarct will first be admitted to an intensive care setting.
They would be under continuous ECG monitoring for arrhythmias or abnormal heart rhythms.
Remember the ECG would also give a really good idea of what type of heart attack they might have had.
They’d be made to lie down in bed to prevent their heart from working too hard.
Thus minimizing their heart muscles oxygen demand.
They might be given supplemental oxygen if it turned out that they weren’t carrying enough oxygen in their bloodstream.
They might be given morphine and that’s to reduce the amount of chest pain that they’re feeling and to also reduce the amount of anxiety that they might be feeling.
Hopefully, by doing that by reducing their anxiety they reduce their heart rate and even further reduce the amount of oxygen that their heart needed.
Really importantly they’d be given aspirin too and the aspirin would reduce the development of the clot that might be causing their symptoms that might be causing their myocardial infarct.
This aspirin is actually one of the most important interventions in reducing mortality in patients with all forms of the acute coronary syndrome.
So all that stuff happens right away on an immediate basis.
Then we have to think about sort of getting rid of that clot that caused their heart attack and allowing blood to flow back into that area that was deprived of blood.
So getting rid of that allowing blood back into that part of the heart is called reperfusion and that’s the next goal.
If a patient comes in and the ECG trace has determined that they have a STEMI an ST-elevation myocardial infarct and they presented to the hospital within about two hours of the onset of their symptoms.
They might be given a medication to break down their clot and a process called thrombolysis or thrombolysis thrombosis refers to the blood clot and lysis refers to the breakdown.
This is actually what’s being referred to when you hear of clot Buster’s, unfortunately, no relation to Ghostbusters.
So if this medication is given early enough there’s a really high chance of restoring blood flow to the damaged part of the heart and that actually really reduces the tissue damage that the heart would experience.
Again just to reiterate this is only for patients with stem Eze, not unstable angina or ends Demi’s and
That’s because a type of clots that are being busted up with clot Buster’s they’re only found in stem ease and not in end Demi’s
So everything that we talked about it is really part of the acute management of someone who presents with a with an acute coronary syndrome.
So all this stuff will happen in the hospital right away.
Then the patient will be put on medications at the hospital that they’ll then have to continue for the rest of their life.
The reason for this is because taking these medications for the rest of their lives.
This has been shown in clinical trials to reduce mortality so that’s the rate of death attributed to having had a previous heart attack
Among other positive effects, they’ve also been shown to reduce the chance of you having another heart attack.
So again these are medications that you’ll start in hospital after these sort of acute management and then you’ll need to be on them indefinitely.
So what are these Myocardial Infarction treatment drugs?
Well, there are drugs that try to restore that oxygen supply and demand balance.
Drugs like beta blockers.
Beta blockers work by making the heart beat slower.
So fewer beats per minute and it also makes a heartbeat with a reduced force
Overall this reduces the heart’s oxygen demand because if the muscles not working is hard it needs less oxygen.
Another group of drugs for Myocardial Infarction treatment you might get is nitrates.
Nitrates are very Oh dilators so they open up your blood vessels.
They dilate your blood vessels to improve your blood flow.
You’d also be given more medications to prevent the development of more clots that could block off your coronary vessels.
You’re already on aspirin but you might also be given one called heparin or warfarin.
What these do is they prevent your clotting cascade from happening as easily.
So they slow down the growth of
1 of all the clot that might have caused your myocardial infarct
2 Any further clots that you might develop down the track.
You’d probably be given a statin.
Statins reduce your blood cholesterol level.
So they decrease the progression of atherosclerosis are filled with cholesterol so
You’d probably be given a statin to take indefinitely
Finally, you might be given an ACE inhibitor.
ACE inhibitors reduce blood pressure and actually studies have shown that ACE inhibitors can reduce negative structural changes that that can happen in your heart after myocardial infarct.
So those are the major sort of treatments with medications that you get after having a myocardial infarct.